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Endangered Species Act > Glossary

Glossary

Taken from the Wild Salmonid Policy - Final Environmental Impact Statement, September 18, 1997

ANADROMOUS FISH
Species that are hatched in freshwater, mature in saltwater, and return to freshwater to spawn.

BIODIVERSITY
The variety and abundance of species, their genetic composition, and the natural communities, ecosystem, and landscapes in which they occur.

BROODSTOCK
Those adult salmonid's that are destined to be the parents for a particular stock or smaller group of fish.

CARRYING CAPACITY
The maximum number of individuals or biomass of a given species or complex of species of fishes that a limited and specific aquatic habitat may support during a stated interval of time.

CATCH
The act of landing a fish at which point the fisher has the option of releasing or retaining it.

CHANNELIZED
A portion of a river channel that has been enlarged or deepened, and often has armored banks.

CO-OP OPERATION
Projects funded under the Aquatic Lands Enhancement Account (ALEA) allowing individuals to do habitat enhancement projects plus rear and release salmon into state waters under the direction of WDFW.

CONSUMPTIVE
Any human activity involving salmonid's that induces mortality.

CRITICAL STOCK
A stock of fish experiencing production levels that are so low that permanent damage to the stock is likely or has already occurred.

DEPRESSED STOCK
A stock of fish whose production is below expected levels based on available habitat and natural variations in survival levels, but above the level where permanent damage to the stock is likely.

ECOLOGICAL INTERACTION
The sum total of impacts of one species on another species, or on other members of the same species.

ECOSYSTEM
A complex of biological communities and environment that forms a functioning, interrelated unit in nature.

ESCAPEMENT
Those fish that have survived all fisheries and will make up a spawning population.

ESCAPEMENT FLOOR
The lower bound of an escapement range.

ESCAPEMENT GOAL
A predetermined biologically derived number of salmonid's that are not harvested and will be the parent spawner's for a wild or hatchery stock of fish.

EXOTIC SPECIES
Salmonid species that were not native to Washington State (e.g., brown trout, brook trout, Atlantic salmon).

EXTINCTION
The loss of a stock of fish from its original range, or as a distinct stock elsewhere. Individuals of the same species may be observed in very low numbers, consistent with straying from other stocks.

FISHERY
The process of attempting to catch fish, which then may be retained or released.

FITNESS
The relative ability of an individual (or population) to survive and reproduce (pass on its genes to the next generation) in a given environment.

FRY
Young salmonid's that have emerged from the gravel and are up to one month of age or any cultured salmonid from hatching through fourteen days after being pond.

GEAR LIMITS
Restrictions placed on sport or commercial fishing gear, which are used to control the take of fish.

GENETIC DIVERSITY
All of the genetic variation within a group. The genetic diversity of a species includes both genetic differences between individuals in a breeding population (=within-stock diversity) and genetic differences among different breeding populations (=among-stock diversity).

GENETIC DRIFT
The random fluctuation of allele frequencies in a population resulting from the sampling of gametes to produce a finite number of individuals in the next generation.

GENETIC RISK
The probability of an action or inaction having a negative impact on the genetic character of a population or species.

GLIDE
A part of a stream that is characterized by a smooth, easy movement of water, usually just upstream of a riffle.

HABITAT
An area that supplies food, water, shelter, and space necessary for animal's existence.

HARVEST
Fish that are caught and retained in a fishery (consumptive harvest).

HARVEST RATE
The proportion of a returning run or total population of salmonid's that is taken by fisheries.

HATCHERY MANAGEMENT UNIT
A group of fish managed to achieve hatchery salmonid escapement objectives. These areas typically support higher harvest rates (percent of returning fish harvested) than wild stock management areas.

HATCHERY PRODUCTION
The spawning, incubation, hatching, or rearing of fish in a hatchery or other artificial production facility (e.g., spawning channels, egg incubation boxes, or pens).

HATCHERY STOCK
A stock that depends upon spawning, incubation, hatching, or rearing in a hatchery or other artificial production facility (synonymous with cultured stock).

HEALTHY STOCK
A stock of fish experiencing production levels consistent with its available habitat and within the natural variations in survival for the stock. This does not imply that the habitat itself is necessarily "healthy."

HYBRIDIZATION
The interbreeding of fish from two or more different stocks.

INBREEDING
The mating of related individuals.

INCIDENTAL HARVEST
The capture and retention of species other than those a fishery is primarily opened to target/take. It can also refer to marked fish of the same species.

INTEGRATED LANDSCAPE MANAGEMENT
A management process that integrates the needs of multiple species across a broad landscape.

LARGE WOODY DEBRIS (LWD)
Conifer or deciduous logs, limbs or root wads twelve inches or larger in diameter.

LOCALLY ADAPTED POPULATION
A population of fish that has developed specific traits that increase their survival in a particular habitat or environment.

LOWER COLUMBIA
That portion of the indigenous to Washington State. Main stem Columbia River below Bonneville Dam.

MANAGEMENT UNIT
A stock or group of stocks which are aggregated for the purposes of achieving a desired spawning escapement objective. See wild and hatchery management unit definitions.

MASS MARKING
The marking of all individuals in a population of fish so that individuals of that population can be identified in subsequent life history stages.

MAXIMUM SUSTAINED YIELD (MSY)
The maximum number of fish from a stock or management unit that can be harvested on a sustained basis, measured as the number of fish that would enter freshwater to spawn in the absence of fishing after accounting for natural mortality.

MID-COLUMBIA
That portion of the main stem Columbia River between McNary and Bonneville dams.

MINIMUM SIZE LIMIT
A sport fishery regulation that establishes a minimum size (usually length) for the retention of a fish to protect younger individuals in a fish population, or to protect other species of fish.

MINIMUM VIABLE POPULATION (MVP)
The size of a population which, with a given probability, will ensure the persistence of the population for a specified period of time.

MIXED-ORIGIN STOCK
A stock whose individuals originated from commingled native and non-native parents; or a previously native stock that has undergone substantial genetic alteration.

MIXED-STOCK FISHERIES
Any fishery that catches fish from more than one stock.

NATIVE SPECIES
A species of fish indigenous to Washington State.

NATIVE STOCK
An indigenous stock of fish that has not been substantially affected by genetic interactions with non-native stocks or by other factors, and is still present in all or part of its original range. In limited cases, a native stock may also exist outside of its original habitat (e.g., captive brood stock programs).

NATURAL SELECTION
Differential survival and reproduction among members of a population or species in nature, due to variation in the possession of adaptive genetic traits. Natural selection, the major driving force of evolution, is a process leading to greater adaptation of organisms to their environment.

NET PEN
A fish-rearing enclosure used in lakes and marine areas.

NON-CONSUMPTIVE
Any human activity involving salmonid's that does not cause mortality.

NON-NATIVE STOCK
A native species residing in an area outside its original habitat in Washington State (e.g., Chambers Creek steelhead, Soos Creek chinook).

OFF-CHANNEL AREA
Any relatively calm portion of a stream outside of the main flow.

POOL
A relatively deep, still section in a stream.

POPULATION
Synonymous with the term stock.

PRIMARY MANAGEMENT UNIT
A stock or group of stocks for which a specific spawning escapement goal is established with the intention of managing all impacting fisheries to meet that goal.

PRODUCTIVITY
A measure of the capacity of a biological system. The efficiency with which a biological system converts energy into growth and production.

QUOTA
A number of fish allocated for harvest to a particular fishing group or area.

RECOLONIZATION
The reestablishment of a salmonid stock in a habitat that the species previously occupied.

RECRUITS
The total numbers of fish of a specific stock available at a particular stage of their life history.

REGIONAL FISHERIES ENHANCEMENT GROUP
12 regional fisheries enhancement (volunteer) groups funded under recreational and commercial salmon license fees, allowed to do habitat enhancement projects plus rear and release salmon into state waters under the direction of WDFW.

REMOTE SITE INCUBATOR
A lightweight, dark colored plastic barrel incubator that employs plastic substrate (hatching medium), and can be sized to accommodate 5,000 to 125,000 eggs per incubator. They are used mainly for incubating chum salmon eggs.

RESIDENT SALMONID
Those members of the family Salmonidae which spend their entire lives in freshwater.

RIFFLE
A shallow gravel area of a stream that is characterized by increased velocities and gradients, and is the predominate stream area used by salmon for spawning.

RIPARIAN HABITAT
The aquatic and terrestrial habitat adjacent to streams, lakes, estuaries, or other waterways.

RISK ASSESSMENT
Evaluating the probability of an action having a negative impact that is not within prescribed limits or acceptable bounds.

RIVERINE HABITAT
The aquatic habitat within streams and rivers.

RUN
The sum of stocks of a single salmonid species which migrates to a particular region, river, or stream of origin at a particular season.

SALMONID
Any member of the taxonomic family Salmonidae, which includes all species of salmon, trout, char, whitefish, and grayling.

SASSI
Salmon and Steelhead Stock Inventory. A cooperative program by the Department of Fish and Wildlife and Washington Treaty Indian tribes to inventory and rate the status of salmon and steelhead stocks on a recurring basis.

SECONDARY MANAGEMENT UNIT
A stock or group of stocks for which escapement is that which occurs primarily as a result of not being caught in fisheries directed at commingled primary stocks. A group of fish for which an escapement goal may not be established.

SECONDARY PROTECTION
Management activities that provide protection to stocks or runs of salmon after they have been subjected to harvest in mixed stock areas.

SELECTIVE BREEDING
The intentional selection of individual spawner's in artificial production programs to produce particular traits in subsequent generations.

SELECTIVE FISHERY
A fishery that allows the release of non-targeted fish stocks/runs, including unmarked fish of the same species.

SELF-SUSTAINING POPULATION
A population of salmonid's that exists in sufficient numbers to replace itself through time without supplementation with hatchery fish. It does not necessarily produce surplus fish for harvest.

SMOLT
A juvenile salmonid that is undergoing the physiological change to migrate from fresh to salt water.

STOCK
The fish spawning in a particular lake or stream(s) at a particular season, which to a substantial degree do not interbreed with any group spawning in a different place at the same time, or in the same place at a different time.

STOCK ORIGIN
The genetic history of a stock.

STOCK STATUS
The current condition of a stock, which may be based on escapement, run size, survival, or fitness level.

SUPPLEMENTATION
The use of artificial propagation to maintain or increase natural production while maintaining the long-term fitness of the target population, and keeping the ecological and genetic impacts to non-target populations within specified biological limits.

TARGETED FISHERY
A harvest strategy designed to catch a specific group of fish.

TERMINAL FISHING AREA
A fishing area near the ultimate freshwater destination of a stock where a salmonid stock or run has separated from other stocks/runs.

TREATY TRIBES
Any Indian tribe recognized by the United States government, with usual and accustomed fishing grounds, whose fishing rights were reserved under a treaty and have been affirmed by a federal court.

UNKNOWN STOCK
This description is applied to stocks where there is insufficient information to identify stock origin or stock status with confidence.

UPPER COLUMBIA
That portion of the mainstem Columbia/Snake River above McNary Dam.

VIABLE POPULATION
A population in a state that maintains its vigor and its potential for evolutionary change.

WATERSHED
A basin including all water and land areas that drain to a common body of water.

WILD MANAGEMENT UNIT
A management unit where fisheries are managed to achieve wild salmonid escapement objectives.

WILD STOCK
A stock that is sustained by natural spawning and rearing in the natural habitat, regardless of parentage (including native).

WILD STOCK INITIATIVE (WSI)
A cooperative program between the state and western Washington Indian tribes that is intended to maintain and restore healthy salmon and steelhead stocks and habitats.

WITHIN-STOCK DIVERSITY
The overall genetic variability among individuals of a single population or stock.

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Endangered Species Act Program Manager: Ron Wierenga
Mailing address: P.O. Box 9810, Vancouver WA 98666-9810
Street Address: Clark County Public Service Center, Room 150, 1300 Franklin St., Vancouver, WA 98660.
Main phone: (360) 397-2121 ext. 4345 | Fax: (360) 397-2062 Relay 711 or (800) 833-6384
E-mail: Ron Wierenga

Responsible Elected Official: Clark County Commissoners

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